Sự phát triển của bé 14 tháng tuổi và các mốc đáng chú ý | Kotexpro

Baby ejonge phezulu
Ukukhula komntwana oneenyanga ezili-14 kuneziganeko eziphawulekayo eziza kumangalisa abazali abaninzi. Iifoto ze-Intanethi

1. Ubunzima obuphakathi kunye nobude bomntwana oneenyanga ezili-14 ubudala

Xa kuziwa ekukhuleni komntwana oneminyaka eyi-14 ubudala kunye nezinye izigaba, into yokuqala esiyikhathalelayo kubude kunye nobunzima bomntwana. Ngokutsho kweWorld Health Organization (WHO), umyinge wobunzima bomntwana oneenyanga ezili-14 ubudala yi-9.4kg kwintombazana. Amakhwenkwe kule minyaka anobunzima obumalunga ne-10.2kg

Ukuphakama kwamantombazana aneenyanga ezili-14 malunga ne-76.5cm. Amakhwenkwe anobude obuyi-avareji malunga ne-78cm.

Nakuba kunjalo, ubunzima nobude babantwana abakule minyaka ayikuphela kwemibandela ebalulekileyo. Abantwana baya kuba namazinga ahlukeneyo okukhula komzimba. Umba obalulekileyo ekufuneka uqwalaselwe kukukhula okunempilo kwabantwana. Iintsana zingafumana malunga nesiqingatha sekilo kwaye zizuze malunga ne-1.2-1.3cm ngenyanga. Kwisithuba seenyanga ezili-15, unokujonga kwakhona okanye uthathe usana lwakho kugqirha ukuze lukhangele, okanye lulinganise xa usana lwakho lugonyiwe, ukwazi kakuhle ukuba lukhula kakuhle.

Utata ebambe isandla somntwana oyintombazana
Intombazana eneenyanga ezili-14 ubudala imalunga ne-76cm ubude kwaye inobunzima obumalunga ne-9.4kg. Iipekseli zeefoto

2. Uphuhliso lomntwana oluneenyanga ezili-14 kunye neziganeko eziphawulekayo

Isigaba somntwana esineenyanga ezili-14 sinezinto ezimbalwa eziphawulekayo. Umntwana wakho ufunda izakhono ezimbalwa. Nazi ezona ziganeko zibalulekileyo kunye namanqaku kubantwana kweli nqanaba:

2.1. Ukuphuhliswa komntwana kwiinyanga ezili-14 kunye namanyathelo okuqala

Uninzi lweentsana ezineenyanga ezili-14 ubudala zinokuma kwaye zizihambele ngokwazo izinyuko ezimbalwa ngaphandle koncedo lwabazali. Kukho abantwana abahamba ngokuzinzileyo nangobuchule. Abanye abantwana bade babe “namabhongo” okubaleka nokunyuka izinyuko.

2.2. Umntwana ufunda ukuthetha

Uninzi lweentsana ezineenyanga ezili-14 ubudala zithetha kakuhle umama okanye utata. Umntwana wakho usenokuthetha amazwi akhe xa ethetha nawe okanye evakalisa imbono yakhe. Iintsana ezininzi zinokuthetha amagama ama-6 nangaphezulu.

2.3. Amazinyo omntwana

Ezinye iintsana ezineenyanga ezili-14 ubudala zifumana imolars yazo yokuqala. Umntwana wakho unokufumana iintsuku zokungakhululeki, ukuxokozela, okanye ukutyhafa ngenxa yamazinyo. Nangona kunjalo, kukho nabantwana abasempilweni abasadlala kwaye batye ngokuqhelekileyo, ukukhetha nje okuncinci. Noko ke, kukwakho neentsana ezicaphuka gqitha nezibonakala zicaphuka okanye zibambelele kunina. Kule meko, kufuneka uqaphele ingxaki yamazinyo omntwana ukuze ufumane indlela yokumnceda azive ekhululekile.

Umntwana oyintombazana uyancuma
Ezinye iintsana ezineenyanga ezili-14 ubudala zifumana imolars yazo yokuqala. Iipekseli zeefoto

2.4. Umntwana wakho unokuqala ukuqonda isingeniso sakho kuqeqesho lwamanzi

Iinyanga ezili-14 ubudala akusiyo iminyaka yokulungela ukuqeqeshwa kweembiza. Kodwa ngokutsho kwabantwana, abantwana abancinci baya kukwazisa xa sele bekulungele ukuchama okanye ukukhupha. Ngoko akukaze kube kudala kakhulu ukuba uqale ukwazisa i-potty kumntwana wakho. Unokufunda iincwadi ukwazisa umntwana wakho, kunye nokwazisa ngokuthe ngcembe indlela yokusebenzisa i-potty ukuze uqhelane nomntwana wakho ngombono.

3. Ukuziphatha komntwana kwiinyanga ezili-14

3.1. Umntwana uya kuphosa umsindo kwaye athande ukuthi “hayi”

Xa umntwana wakho eneenyanga ezili-14 ubudala, lungele ukuva igama elithi “hayi” liphuma emlonyeni womntwana wakho nangaliphi na ixesha.

Umntwana wakho oneenyanga ezili-14 ubudala unomkhwa wokuphosa amaxesha ngamaxesha- ungakhubeki okanye umangaliswe nawe. Kungenxa yokuba le yimbonakalo eqhelekileyo eya kubonakala kweli nqanaba lokukhula komntwana.

Abantwana baneenkani xa bebuza into abafuna ukuyenza. Umzekelo, umntwana uya kucela ukubamba iglasi yamanzi, agalele amanzi yedwa, anxibe izihlangu zakhe, … Ngoxa ezi zinto engekakwazi ukuzenza.

Nakuba kunjalo, ukuba nomsindo xa uneenyanga ezili-14 usemncinci. Kanye njengokuba oku kunokubonwa njengesiqalo nje sokukhula komntwana ukususela kwiminyaka eyi-14 ukuya phambili.

Abantwana badla ngokuba nengqumbo xa beneenyanga ezili-17-24 ubudala. So noko ngoku usenalo ixesha lokuqhela. Kanye njengokuba unexesha lokufunda indlela yokujongana nomsindo. Kwaye, gcina engqondweni, ngoku ukuba umntwana wakho unomsindo, zixelele ukuba “uzolile”. Le yimantra ekufuneka uyiqhelisele – ukulungiselela ixesha elinzima ngakumbi kamva.

Usana olume ngasefestileni
Ngamanye amaxesha umntwana oneenyanga ezili-14 udla ngokuphosa umsindo, unenkani kakhulu. Iipekseli zeefoto

3.2. Ixhala lomntwana

Umntwana wakho uya esiba nokuzimela. Kodwa, ngamanye amaxesha abantwana banomdla ngakumbi wokuba kude nawe. Ukuba uthumela umntwana wakho kwi-daycare okanye kwindlu kagogo, kufuneka umqinisekise ukuba uya kubuya. Kufuneka unikele ingqalelo engakumbi kusana lwakho xa ubuyela. Nawe, kufuneka ube “nzima” kwaye ukholelwe ukuba iinyembezi zomntwana wakho ziya kuyeka ngokukhawuleza emva kokuba uhambe. Kuphela ke, unokuthumela abantwana xa kuyimfuneko. Kwaye ukuxhalaba komntwana wakho yinxalenye yophuhliso lwakhe kweli nqanaba.

3.3. Iimpawu zoluphazamiseko

Umele ukuba uvile okanye uve kakhulu malunga ne-autism syndrome, akunjalo? Namhlanje, inkxalabo eqhelekileyo yabazali abaninzi kukuba ingaba umntwana wabo unokuba ne-autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Ngenxa yokuba i-autism inokuthi ibonakale ngexesha lomntwana kunye neminyaka yasesikolweni.

Abantwana abane-autism banokuba nonxibelelwano olungaqhelekanga, izakhono zentlalo kunye nokuziphatha. Abanakukwazi ukubetha imilinganiselo eqhelekileyo njengabanye abantwana abalingana nabo. Okanye, banokuphulukana nezakhono ababenazo ngaphambili.

Nangona, ugqirha wakho wabantwana unokukubuza uthotho lwemibuzo ukuze uvavanye iimpawu zoluphazamiseko kwiinyanga ezili-18. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba unamathandabuzo okanye iinkxalabo kwiinyanga ezili-14 ubudala, kufuneka uxoxe ngazo nogqirha wakho ngoko nangoko. Ngenxa yokuba, nge-autism syndrome, ukubonwa kwangaphambili kunye nokungenelela kwangethuba, abantwana abaninzi banethuba lokudibanisa noluntu ngokulula xa bekhula.

Usana lumile lubukele imvula
Ukuba unamathandabuzo malunga nokungaqhelekanga komntwana wakho kwiinyanga ezili-14 ubudala, xubusha nogqirha wakho ngoko nangoko. Iifoto ze-Intanethi

3.4. Iintsana ezineenyanga ezili-14 ubudala zihlala ziluma

Mhlawumbi wena okanye umzali okanye utatomkhulu okanye umntu ogcina umntwana unokulunywa ngumntwana. Okanye uya kubona umntwana wakho eluma into yokudlala okanye into, umzekelo. Sukubanexhala. Kuba, ukuluma kukuziphatha okuqhelekileyo phakathi kwabantwana abaselula. Le meko ayizange ihlale ixesha elide.

Oku kwenzeka ngenxa yokuba umntwana akakwazi ukunxibelelana neemvakalelo zakhe, ngakumbi ukudandatheka. Ngoko ke, baya kuluma. Nangona kunjalo, nangona sonke siyayiqonda indlela yokuziphatha komntwana wakho, kusafuneka uyicacise kwaye uchazele umntwana wakho ukuba ukuluma akwamkelekanga.

4. Impilo yabantwana abaneenyanga ezili-14 ubudala

4.1. Ukulala komntwana oneenyanga ezili-14 ubudala

Uninzi lwabantu abaneminyaka eyi-1-2 baya kulala iiyure eziyi-11-14 ngosuku. Oku kubandakanya ukulala ebusuku kunye ne-1-2 emini naps. Nangona kunjalo, enyanisweni, ngamanye amaxesha ishedyuli yokulala yomntwana okanye ixesha lokulala alilandeli ishedyuli. Ngamanye amaxesha umntwana oneminyaka engama-14 ubudala akayi kulala ngokwaneleyo, ukulala kuya kuphazamiseka, nokuba kuya kubakho ubusuku xa umntwana enqaba ukulala.

Ngokuqinisekileyo uya kuba nexhala kakhulu kwaye udinwe ukuba umntwana wakho uneengxaki zokulala. Ngoku kufuneka ufumane ingcambu yengxaki, umzekelo: umntwana unamazinyo, umntwana unexhala lokuba kude nomama, …

Ukongezelela, kufuneka uqeqeshe umntwana wakho ukuba alale kwangethuba. Ngamanye amaxesha awuyi kukwazi ukunyanzela umntwana wakho ukuba alale, okanye ungakhathazeki. Nika umntwana wakho “izixhobo” eziyimfuneko zokumnceda ukuba alale kwaye alale kakuhle. Ngokomzekelo, emini, khuthaza umntwana wakho ukuba adlale enempilo kwaye asebenze. Fundela umntwana wakho iincwadi, gcina indawo yokulala yomntwana izolile kwaye ucime izibane. Kufuneka wenze imikhwa ethile kunye nosana lwakho ebonisa ixesha lokulala elifana nokuhlamba ubuso bakho, ukuhlamba izandla zakho, ukuxubha amazinyo akho, ukutshintsha indlela yokulala, njl.

Umntwana uyadlala
Ukuba umntwana wakho odlalayo uyala ukulala, kufuneka umqinisekise endaweni yokumnyanzela. Iipekseli zeefoto

4.2. Iingxaki zokutya kunye nesondlo sabantwana abaneenyanga ezili-14 ubudala

Umntwana wakho oneenyanga ezili-14 ubudala utya ngakumbi kwaye angatya ukutya okuninzi okutsha okwenzayo. Nangona kunjalo, kuya kubakho imeko apho umntwana ekwala ukutya ebekuthanda ngaphambili kwaye akakutyi. Nangona kunjalo, ungakhathazeki, yenza izitya ezininzi ezitsha ukuze umntwana wakho aqhubeke nokuhlola kwaye ukhethe ukutya okuhambelana nencasa yakhe.

Ukuze le nkqubo ihambe kakuhle, usana lwakho kwaye akufuneki ukuba uhambe ngokungeyomfuneko “phezulu naphantsi” okanye ukulwa malunga nokutya, kufuneka ukwazi ezi mpawu zilandelayo:

4.2.1. Utya malini umntwana oneenyanga ezili-14?

Abantwana kufuneka batye izidlo ezi-3 eziphambili kunye neesnacks ezi-2 ngosuku. Kufuneka unike usana lwakho iintlobo ngeentlobo zokutya kwamaqela emifuno, iziqhamo, iinkozo ezipheleleyo, iiprotheyini kunye nobisi.

Oogqirha babantwana bathi uninzi lwabantwana abancinci ludinga malunga ne-1,000 yeekhalori ngosuku nge-avareji. Ulondla usana lwakho inxalenye elingana ne-1/4 yomntu omdala. Emva koko, vumela umntwana wakho akhethe isixa sokutya ngokwezinto azithandayo okanye ezinqwenelekayo.

Umntwana uyatya
Ufanele unike usana lwakho iintlobo ngeentlobo zokutya. Iipekseli zeefoto

4.3.2. Yintoni ukondla umntwana oneminyaka eyi-14 ubudala?

Abantwana abaneenyanga ezili-14 bafuna i-700mg ye-calcium ngosuku. Ngoko ke kufuneka unike umntwana wakho ubisi okanye usancancisa.

Ngokuphathelele ukutya, kufuneka utyise umntwana wakho ngendlela yokutya. Awudingi ukunqanda amanqatha kuba iintsana ezineenyanga ezili-14 ubudala zifuna amanqatha okukhula kwengqondo. Nangona kunjalo, kufuneka uqiniseke ukuba uyakuphepha ukunika umntwana wakho ukutya okunetyuwa kakhulu, okuswiti kakhulu okanye okunebhotolo. Nika umntwana wakho ukutya okunengqele enamandla kwaye okulula okanye okungalungiswanga kangangoko.

4.3.3. Amanqaku okutya kubantwana abaneenyanga ezili-14 ubudala

Uninzi lwabaneenyanga ezili-14 ubudala bazikhethele okanye bazondla ngokwabo. Kodwa, abantwana basesengozini yokukrwitshwa. Ngoko ke, kukho ukutya ekusafuneka ukutyumze kwaye ukusetyenzwe ukuze kube lula ukuhlafuna usana lwakho.

Ukutya okunjengamandongomane, iminqathe ekrwada, neelekese eziqinileyo kusenzima kakhulu kubantwana abakule minyaka. Iidiliya okanye iitumato zecherry okanye iisoseji zifanele zisikwe zibe ngamaqhekeza amancinci ukuze abantwana bazitye ngokulula ukuze baphephe ukuminxa.

Itumato yeCherry
Ukuba uyawondla umntwana wakho weetumato zecherry, kufuneka uzinqumle. Iipekseli zeefoto

4.3.4. Umntwana oneenyanga ezili-14 akafuni ukutya

Abantwana abasacathulayo nabo badume ngokuthanda ukutya. Xa umntwana enqaba ukutya, ukhathazeka ngokukhawuleza. Oku kuxhaphake kakhulu kubazali abanabantwana abaselula, kuquka neenyanga ezili-14 ubudala.

Ngokutsho kweengcali, kufuneka ucinge ngesondlo sabantwana ngeveki, kungekhona ngemini okanye ngokutya. Ukuba umntwana wakho utye ukutya okuhlukahlukeneyo ngeveki kwaye akanangxaki ngokunyuka okanye ukukhula, ngoko yonke into ihamba kakuhle.

5. Imisebenzi yabantwana abaneenyanga ezili-14

Usana oluneenyanga ezili-14 lumi nkqo, lusebenza ngakumbi kunangaphambili. Umntwana wakho unokukonwabela ukudlala ngelixa ehleli, ukuma nokuhamba. Ngoko ke, kufuneka ubeke ingqalelo kwimisebenzi efanelekileyo, imidlalo kunye namathoyizi kubantwana. Ngokukodwa njenge:

  • Umdlalo we-chit-chat kunye ne-peek-a-boo : Uninzi lwabantwana abaneenyanga ezili-14 baya kukuxelisa xa uqhwaba. Umntwana uya kuqaphela isandi xa edlala kwakhona. I-Chi chi kunye ne-peek-a-boo yimidlalo emibini “yakudala” akufanele uphoswe kule misebenzi yokuzonwabisa kunye nosana lwakho oluneenyanga ezili-14.
  • Inqwelo : Iistrola, oomatshini bokucheba ingca encinci okanye iistroller ngokubanzi zizinto zokudlala ezintle kweli qela lobudala. Ekubeni, abantwana bafunda nje ukuhamba, ngoko bathanda ukubonisa izakhono zabo xa betyhala i-stroller. Ke ngoko, ungalungiselela enye okanye into efanayo ukuba umntwana wakho azityhale. Ngokuqinisekileyo abantwana baya kuba nomdla kakhulu kwaye bakuvuyele ukudlala.
  • Ukupakisha iityhubhu : Ungadlala iphazili yebhloko enamanqanaba amabini kunye nomntwana wakho. Emva koko uya kubona, umntwana wakho akafuni nje imigangatho emibini, kodwa ufuna nokuba mde. Abantwana baya kugxila kwaye baziqhelanise nobuchwephesha bokwakha iibhloko ezinomaleko ngakumbi.
  • Ukuhlelwa kobume : Iipuzzle zeJigsaw ezinemingxuma ekuhleleni amathoyizi nazo zifaneleke kakhulu kwiintsana ezineenyanga ezili-14 ubudala. Le yindlela yokuziqhelanisa nezakhono zokuxinanisa, kunye ne-dexterity ukuba umntwana oneenyanga ezili-14 sele engaqala.
Usana olutyhala inqwelo yokudlala
Umntu ohambahambayo uya kuyonwabisa umntwana wakho oneenyanga ezili-14 ubudala. Iifoto ze-Intanethi

Kunokuthiwa ukuphuhliswa komntwana oneminyaka engama-14 ubudala kunamandla kunokuba unokucinga. Ngenxa yokuba, ngeli xesha, umntwana wakho ukwinqanaba lophuhliso kwizinto ezininzi ezivela emzimbeni, izakhono zemoto, uphuhliso lwentlalo, iimvakalelo, ingqondo kunye nokunxibelelana. Akulula xa kufuneka ulandele umntwana wakho ngokweentshukumo zakhe kwinkqubo yokufunda nokunxibelelana nehlabathi. Nangona kunjalo, yonke imizamo yakho kumntwana wakho ifanelekile kwaye ifanelekile.

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